- THE PRIMITIVE VOCABULARYSHAPES AND THINGSPrimary Visual / Body Parts / Animate / Food etc. / Near / Objects / Larger Scale / Time AspectsDOTFACE
/ Larger Scale /LAYER
/ Near Objects /
/ Auditory /
LEAFMOVEMENTS AND ACTIONS QUALITIES AND RELATIONSPrimary / Body Parts / Arm / Whole Body / Complex / Visual / Other / RelationalIS
- The Mastery of Languages, or the Art of speaking Foreign Tongues idiomatically
Thomas Prendergast | 1864 [p.164]
A LIST OF THE COMMONEST ENGLISH WORDS, DECLINABLE AND INDECLINABLE.a,an • about • after • again • ago • all • almost • alone • also • although • always • among • and • another • any • as • at • away • back • be • because • before • behind • below • beside • best • better • between • beyond • bring • but • buy • call • can • come • directly • do • down • during • each • either • else • enough • every • except • far • few • find • first • for • forward • from • give • go • have • he • her • here • hers • him • his • how • however • I • if • in • instead • into • it • its • large • last • lest • let • like • make • many • may • me • might • mine • more • most • much • must • my • near • neither • never • next • no • none • nor • not • now • of • of • off • off • often • on • only • or • other • ought • our • ours • out • over • own • perhaps • procure • put • quickly • quite • rather • see • sell • send • several • shall • she • show • since • slowly • some • soon • still • stop • such • take • tell • than • that • the • their • them • then • there • therefore • these • they • this • those • though • through • till • to • to-day • to-morrow • together • too • took • towards • under • unless • until • up • upon • upper • us • very • want • we • well • what • when • where • which • while • who • whole • whom • whose • why • will • with • without • yes • yesterday • yet • you • your • yours
one • two • three • four • five • six • seven • eight • nine • ten • eleven • twelve • thirteen • fifteen • twenty • thirty • forty • fifty • hundred • thousand
can't • couldn't • don't • shan't • shouldn't • won't • wouldn't
- SIMPLE 1801 BUT NOT GLOBISHabsoluteacid
plough / plow
- 1801 SIMPLE ENGLISH PLUS (UNEDITED)
a • able • about • above • absolute • accept • account • achieve • acid • across • act • action • active • activity • actor • actress • actual • ad • Adam • add • addition • address • adjustment • admit • advertise • advertisement • affect • afford • Africa • African • after • afternoon • again • against • age • agent • ago • agree • agreement • air • airline • airport • al • album • Alexander • align • all • allow • almost • along • already • alright • also • although • always • America • American • among • amount • amusement • an • ancient • and • angle • angry • animal • another • answer • ant • any • apart • apparatus • apparent • appear • apple • apply • appoint • approach • appropriate • approval • April • arch • are • area • argue • argument • arm • Armenian • army • around • arrange • art • article • artist • as • Asia • ask • associate • association • assume • asteroid • at • Atlantic • attack • attempt • attend • attention • attraction • August • Australia • Australian • Austria • author • authority • automatic • available • awake • award • aware • away • awful
b • baby • back • bad • bag • balance • ball • band • bank • bar • base • baseball • basin • basis • basket • bass • bath • battle • bay • BC • be • bear • beat • beautiful • beauty • because • become • bed • bee • before • begin • behavior • behind • being • belief • believe • bell • belong • below • belt • benefit • bent • Berlin • berry • best • bet • between • bgcolor • big • bill • bird • birth • bit • bite • bitter • black • blade • bloke • blood • blow • blue • board • boat • body • boiling • bone • book • boot • border • born • both • bother • bottle • bottom • box • boy • brain • brake • branch • brass • bread • break • breath • brick • bridge • brief • bright • brilliant • bring • Britain • British • broken • brother • brown • brush • bucket • budget • build • building • bulb • burn • burst • bus • business • busy • but • butter • button • buy • by
c • cake • California • call • camera • can • Canada • Canadian • cannot • canton • canvas • capital • car • card • care • career • carriage • carry • cart • case • castle • cat • catch • cathedral • catholic • cause • cell • cent • center • central • centre • century • certain • cfcfff • chain • chair • chairman • chalk • champion • championship • chance • change • chap • character • charge • Charles • cheap • check • cheese • chemical • chest • chief • child • chin • china • Chinese • choice • choose • Christ • Christian • Christmas • church • circle • city • civil • claim • class • classical • clean • clear • client • clock • close • closes • cloth • clothe • cloud • club • coal • coast • coat • code • coffee • cold • collar • colleague • collect • college • Coll??ge • color • colour • comb • come • comes • comfort • comment • commit • committee • common • commonly • communist • community • company • compare • comparison • competition • complete • complex • composer • compute • computer • concern • concert • condition • confer • connection • conscious • consider • consult • contact • contain • continue • contract • control • converse • cook • copper • copy • cord • cork • corner • correct • cost • cotton • cough • could • council • count • country • county • couple • course • court • cover • cow • crack • create • credit • crime • cross • cruel • crush • cry • culture • cup • current • currently • curtain • curve • cushion • cut • cyclone
d • dad • damage • dance • danger • dark • data • date • daughter • David • day • days • de • dead • deal • dear • death • debate • debt • December • decide • decision • deep • defeat • definite • degree • delicate • democratic • department • depend • dependent • describe • design • desire • destroy • destruction • detail • develop • development • dfffdf • die • difference • different • difficult • digestion • dinner • direct • direction • director • dirty • discover • discovery • discuss • discussion • disease • disgust • distance • distribution • district • div • divide • division • do • doctor • document • doe • dog • door • double • doubt • down • Dr • drain • draw • drawer • dress • drink • drive • driving • drop • drug • dry • due • duke • during • dust • dutch • dynasty
e • each • ear • early • earth • east • eastern • easy • eat • economy • edge • educate • education • Edward • efcfff • effect • egg • Egypt • eight • either • elastic • elect • election • electric • element • eleven • else • emperor • empire • employ • encourage • end • energy • engine • England • English • enjoy • enough • enter • environment • episode • equal • error • especial • especially • Europe • European • even • evening • event • ever • every • evidence • exact • example • except • exchange • excuse • exercise • exist • existence • expansion • expect • expense • experience • expert • explain • express • extra • eye
f • face • fact • fair • fall • false • family • famous • far • farm • fast • fat • father • favour • fear • feather • feature • February • federal • feeble • feed • feel • feeling • female • fertile • few • fiction • field • fight • figure • file • fill • film • final • finance • find • fine • finger • finish • fire • first • fish • fit • five • fixed • flag • flame • flat • flight • floor • Florida • flow • flower • fly • fold • follow • following • food • foolish • foot • football • for • force • forest • forget • fork • form • former • fortune • forward • found • founded • four • fowl • frame • France • free • French • frequent • Friday • friend • from • front • fruit • ft • full • fun • function • fund • further • future
g • gallery • game • garden • gas • general • generally • genus • George • German • Germany • get • girl • give • given • glass • glove • go • goat • god • gold • golden • good • goodbye • govern • government • grain • grand • grant • grass • great • Greek • green • grey/gray • grip • ground • group • grow • growth • guess • guide • guitar • gun • guy
h • ha • hair • half • hall • hammer • hand • hang • hanging • happen • happy • harbor • hard • harmony • harry • hat • hate • have • he • head • health • healthy • hear • hearing • heart • heat • heavy • hell • help • Henry • her • here • hi • high • hill • himself • his • history • hit • hold • hole • holiday • hollow • holy • home • honest • hook • hope • horn • horse • hospital • hot • hour • house • how • however • hullo • human • humor • hundred • hurricane • husband
I • ice • idea • identify • if • ii • iii • ill • image • imagine • important • improve • impulse • in • include • including • income • increase • indeed • independence • independent • India • Indian • individual • industrialise • industry • influence • inform • information • ink • insect • inside • instead • instrument • insurance • insure • interest • international • Internet • into • introduce • invention • invest • involve • Ireland • Irish • iron • ISBN • island • issue • it • Italian • Italy • item • its • itself • iv
j • James • January • Japan • Japanese • jelly • Jesus • jewel • Jewish • job • John • join • Joseph • journey • jpg • judge • July • jump • June • Jupiter • just
k • keep • kettle • key • kick • kid • kill • kind • king • kingdom • kiss • kitchen • km • knee • knife • knock • knot • know • knowledge • known • Korea
L • la • labour • lad • lady • lake • land • language • large • last • late • later • Latin • laugh • law • lay • lead • leader • leaf • league • learn • learning • leather • leave • left • leg • length • less • let • letter • level • library • lie • life • lift • light • like • likely • limit • line • linen • link • lip • liquid • list • listen • literature • little • little (less ,least) • live • living • load • local • locate • lock • London • long • look • loose • lord • lose • loss • lot • loud • Louis • love • low • luck • lunch
m • machine • made • magazine • main • mainly • major • make • making • male • man • manage • manager • many • map • march • mark • market • married • marry • martin • Mary • mass • match • material • math • matter • may • maybe • meal • mean • meaning • means • measure • meat • medical • medicine • meet • meeting • member • memory • mention • metal • method • Mexico • Michael • middle • might • mile • military • milk • million • mind • mine • minister • minor • minus • minute • miss • mist • mister • mixed • model • modern • moment • Monday • money • monkey • month • moon • more • morning • most • most) • mostly • mother • motion • mount • mountain • mouth • move • movement • movie • Mrs • much • much (more • municipality • muscle • museum • music • musical • musician • Muslim • must • my • mythology
n • n't • nail • name • named • narrow • nation • national • native • natural • nature • Nazi • near • necessary • neck • need • needle • nerve • net • Netherlands • network • never • new • news • next • nice • night • nine • no • noise • non • none • normal • north • northern • nose • not • note • notice • novel • November • now • numb • number • nut • o • object • observation • obvious • occasion • ocean • October • odd • of • off • offer • office • official • often • oil • okay • old • on • once • one • online • only • open • opera • operate • operation • opinion • opportunity • oppose • opposite • opus • or • orange • orbit • orchestra • order • organ • organization • organize • original • originally • ornament • orthodox • other • otherwise • ought • our • out • outside • oven • over • own • owner
p • pacific • pack • page • pain • paint • painter • pair • paper • paragraph • parallel • parcel • pardon • parent • Paris • park • parliament • part • particular • party • pass • past • paste • Paul • pay • payment • peace • pen • pence • pencil • pension • people • per • percent • perfect • perform • perhaps • period • person • peter • philosopher • photograph • physical • piano • pick • picture • piece • pig • pin • pipe • place • plan • plane • planet • plant • plate • play • player • please • pleasure • plough/plow • plus • pocket • poet • point • poison • Poland • police • policy • polish • politic • political • politician • poor • pop • pope • popular • population • port • porter • position • positive • possible • post • pot • potato • pound • powder • power • practise • prepare • present • president • press • pressure • presume • pretty • previous • price • prime • prince • print • prison • private • prize • probable • probably • problem • proceed • process • produce • product • production • profit • program • programme • project • proper • property • propose • prose • protect • protest • provide • province • public • publish • pull • pump • punishment • purpose • push • put • px
quality • quarter • queen • question • quick • quid • quiet • quite
r • race • radio • rail • rain • raise • range • rat • rate • rather • ray • reach • reaction • read • reading • ready • real • realise • realize • really • reason • receipt • receive • recent • reckon • recognize • recommend • record • red • reduce • ref • refer • reference • regard • region • regret • regular • relation • release • religion • religious • remain • remember • replace • report • represent • representative • republic • request • require • research • resource • respect • responsible • rest • result • ret • return • revolution • reward • rhythm • rice • Richard • rid • right • ring • rise • river • road • Robert • rock • rod • role • roll • roman • Rome • roof • room • root • rough • round • royal • rub • rule • run • Russia • Russian
s • sad • safe • said • sail • saint • sale • salt • same • san • sand • satellite • Saturday • save • say • scale • scheme • school • science • scientist • scissors • score • Scotland • screw • sea • season • seat • second • secret • secretary • section • secure • see • seed • seem • selection • self • sell • send • sense • separate • September • series • serious • servant • serve • service • set • settle • seven • several • sex • shade • shake • shall • shame • shape • share • sharp • she • sheep • sheet • shelf • ship • shirt • shock • shoe • shoot • shop • short • should • show • shut • sick • side • sign • silk • silver • similar • simple • since • sing • singer • single • sir • sister • sit • site • situate • six • size • skin • skirt • sky • sleep • slight • slip • slope • slow • small • smash • smell • smile • smoke • smooth • snake • sneeze • snow • so • soap • social • society • sock • soft • solar • soldier • solid • some • someone • something • sometimes • son • song • soon • sorry • sort • sound • soup • source • south • southern • soviet • space • spade • Spain • Spanish • speak • special • specie • species • specific • speed • spell • spend • sponge • spoon • sport • spring • square • St • staff • stage • stairs • stamp • stand • standard • star • start • state • statement • station • stay • steam • steel • stem • step • stick • sticky • stiff • still • stitch • stocking • stomach • stone • stop • store • storm • story • straight • strange • strategy • street • stretch • strike • string • strong • structure • student • studio • study • stuff • stupid • style • sub • subject • substance • succeed • such • sudden • sugar • suggest • suggestion • suit • summer • sun • Sunday • sup • supply • support • suppose • sure • surface • surprise • Sweden • sweet • swim • switch • Switzerland • symbol • system
t • table • tail • take • talk • tall • tape • taste • tax • td • tea • teach • teaching • team • technology • telephone • television • tell • temperature • ten • tend • tendency • term • terrible • territory • test • text • th • than • thank • that • the • their • themselves • then • theory • there • therefore • they • thick • thin • thing • think • third • thirteen • thirty • this • Thomas • thou • though • thought • thousand • thread • three • throat • through • throw • thumb • thunder • Thursday • ticket • tie • tight • till • time • tin • tired • title • to • today • toe • together • tomorrow • tongue • tonight • too • tooth • top • total • touch • tour • toward • tower • town • tr • trade • tradition • traditional • traffic • train • transport • travel • tray • treat • treaty • tree • trick • troop • tropical • trouble • trousers • true • trust • try • Tuesday • turn • TV • twelve • twenty • twist • two • type
u • uk • umbrella • under • understand • union • unit • unite • United • university • unless • until • up • upon • USA • use • used • usual • usually
valley • value • van • various • verse • version • very • vessel • video • view • village • violent • visit • voice • von • vote
w • wage • wait • waiting • walk • wall • want • wanted • war • warm • wash • Washington • waste • watch • water • wave • wax • way • we • weapon • wear • weather • web • website • Wednesday • wee • week • weigh • weight • welcome • well • were • west • western • wet • what • wheel • when • where • whether • which • while • whip • whistle • white • who • whole • why • wide • wife • will • William • win • wind • window • wine • wing • winter • wire • wise • wish • with • within • without • woman • won • wonder • wood • wool • word • work • working • world • worm • worry • worse • worth • would • wound • write • writer • writing • written • wrong
Y - Z
year • yellow • yes • yesterday • yet • York • you • young • your
1801 SIMPLE ENGLISH PLUS (UNEDITED)
SIMPLE WIKIPEDIA 1000 FREQUENT WORDS
SIMPLE WIKTIONARY USER DEFINED WORD LIST
SPOKEN BNC1000 HW
Globish webiste1500 Globish wordsGlobish word bookGlobish text scannerGlobish The World Over全球英語實戰力論壇 Globish Meets Global English Here (下集)FYIGlobish (English Language)What is Globish?Globish, Glanglish and Google Translate#GLOBISH #INTGLISH #PANGLISH #GLANGLISH #InternationalEnglish #WorldEnglish #Inli
GLOBISH ? WHICH GLOBISH ?1500 mots Globish
1500 Globish Words
Globish - English
on the first list there are words
NOT GLOBISH ACCORDING TO THE GLOBLISH TEXT SCANNER
accident • activist • administration • aggression • agriculture • airplane • airport • album • ammunition • anarchy • ancestor • ancient • animal • anniversary • artillery • ash • astronomy • atmosphere • automobile • balloon • biology • brass • cancer • candidate • capital • chemistry • coffee • collar • complex • conservative • convention • creature • criminal • curtain • deficit • democracy • dictator • disarm • dissident • dollar • ecology • economy • energy • examine • excellent • exile • fifth • harmony • headquarters • helicopter • honor • hotel • illegal • immediate • inflation • instrument • library • loyal • machine • magic • minute • movie • natural • ninth • nominate • nuclear • ocean • official • orange • parallel • passport • police • population • president • pressure • probable • produce • radar • radio • realistic • recession • religion • sabotage • sacrifice • satellite • skeleton • sport • statue • surrender • technical • technology • telephone • television • torture • unite • university • urgent • usual • village • violate
100 words that are strangely not recognized by the Globish Text Scanner
GLOBISH TEXT SCANNER
The first list has "administration", but not "according (to)" like the second and third listing (that don't have "administration"
#GLOBISH #level1500 #words #nimi #Inli #selo1500
#level1500 #InternationalEnglish #GlobalEnglish
Basic English : at least to different versions of the 850 word list
- THE 1000 UPGOER 5 WORD LISTaable
UPGOER 5 WORD LIST
THE UP-GOER FIVE TEXT EDITOR
1133: Up Goer Five
A bit more about the Up-Goer Five Text Editor
Science in Ten Hundred Words: The `Up-Goer Five' challenge.
'Up-Goer Five' text editor restricts writers to 1000 most commonly used words
Ten Hundred Words of Science
THE 876 UPGOER 5 GLOBISH WORDS
UPGOER 5 WORDS BUT NOT GLOBISH
these 124 words are not Globish according to the Globish Text Scanner
In Thing Explainer: Complicated Stuff in Simple Words, things are explained in the style of Up Goer Five
A Thing Explainer word checker
Pictures With a Thousand Words: Thing Explainer by Randall Munroe
Fri Nov 27, 2015
The Edge of the Sky : All you Need to Know about the All-There-Is
1,000 words list
What are the 1,000 words used in The Edge of the Sky?
Dr Roberto Trotta
- CORE VOCABULARY OF SOME 200 WORDS
#museum_conversation #dinosaur_conversation #core_vocabulary #fringe_vocabulary #conversation #vocabulary #level200 #nimi #selo200
"[...]Let's take a look at another sentence. "I went to the museum yesterday and saw a dinosaur." There are ten words in this sentence. Two of them are context specific - museum and dinosaur. Eight of them are core words. However, which of these words would appeal to an augmentative communication system vocabulary manager? Museum and dinosaur would be considered the most powerful or novel words because pointing to graphics illustrating these words or speaking these words on a voice output system would enable the conversational partner to fill in the blanks. The envisioned Conversation would feature an augmented communicator who would first say or point to "museum." The conversational partner would say "Oh, you went to a museum. Did you have a good time?" The augmented communicator would reply by uttering or pointing to "dinosaur." The conversational partner would then say "You saw the dinosaur. Was it interesting to see a dinosaur?"The benign vision portrayed by the preceding interaction could, however, have gone in just the opposite way. The conversation partner could have said, "Museum?! You went there yesterday. I am not going to get another trip together for you. Boy, you guys, give an inch and you take a mile. You don't appreciate anything we do. Your attitude makes me sick." Folks, this is language reality. How could the augmented communicator dig him or herself out of the hole brought about in the second imaginary interaction? Personal autonomy is best effected by control of core vocabulary. If an augmented communicator had control of core vocabulary, he or she could have said, "I went somewhere yesterday. It was fun. We saw old things." The conversational partner might reply, "I know. Who do you think organized it? I'm glad you had a good time. I'll organize some more trips for you guys, if you liked that one." Which is easier to do? Organize and teach an effective structure for 200 core words and their grammatical morphemes or the near random cast of extended vocabulary that float through every individual's life? In our opinion, it is core vocabulary that liberates. The fact that the same core vocabulary is used across all environments gives one in control of core vocabulary functionality across environments. Although topics change, core vocabulary is consistent. [...]"
source:CORE VOCABULARY IS THE SAME ACROSS ENVIRONMENTS
Bruce R. Baker / Katya Hill / Richard Devylder
#CORE #FRINGE #museum #dinosaur #conversation
- GLOBISH ? WHICH GLOBISH ?----1500 mots Globish1500 Globish WordsGlobish - English-----on the first list there are wordsthat areNOT GLOBISH ACCORDING TO THE GLOBLISH TEXT SCANNERaccidentactivistadministrationaggressionagricultureairplaneairportalbumammunitionanarchyancestorancientanimalanniversaryartilleryashastronomyatmosphereautomobileballoonbiologybrasscancercandidatecapitalchemistrycoffeecollarcomplexconservativeconventioncreaturecriminalcurtaindeficitdemocracydictatordisarmdissidentdollarecologyeconomyenergyexamineexcellentexilefifthharmonyheadquartershelicopterhonorhotelillegalimmediateinflationinstrumentlibraryloyalmachinemagicminutemovienaturalninthnominatenuclearoceanofficialorangeparallelpassportpolicepopulationpresidentpressureprobableproduceradarradiorealisticrecessionreligionsabotagesacrificesatelliteskeletonsportstatuesurrendertechnicaltechnologytelephonetelevisiontortureuniteuniversityurgentusualvillageviolate100 words that are strangely not recognized by the Globish Text ScannerGLOBISH TEXT SCANNERThe first list has "administration", but not "according (to)" like the second and third listing (thatdon't have "administration" )#GLOBISH #level1500 #words #nimi #Inli #selo1500#GLOBISHadministration #GLOBISHaccording(to) #level1500 #InternationalEnglish #GlobalEnglish
- Toki Pona Translation 2005-01-31 Toki Pona is a small invented language that I wrote about recently in a fairly critical manner. I therefore had to expect that the Law of Criticising Invented Languages, which dictates that someone will reply to you in that language in the attempt to force you to learn it, would be upheld, and it was. Someone calling themselves Jan Wasolitawa replied to my essay with the following: mi pilin e ni: sina toki ike e toki pona. ni li ike. "waso telo" li nimi pona. tan seme la sina wile e ni: nimi mute pi waso? ni li pakala. mi pilin e ni: sina sona ala e nasin pi toki pona. mi toki e ni: nasin pona li pona. sina sona ala sona e toki mi? P.S. toki pi nanpa suli li ike mute. o weka e nanpa suli. ni li nasin mani! nasin mani li ike! ni li pakala! — Jan Wasolitawa Thankfully I have a friend who's learning Toki Pona, and this was a good opportunity for him to test his skills. At the same time, I decided to race him by attempting an automatic translation using a couple of Python scripts. He beat me both in speed and quality, but we still think that the script is close enough to Babelfish quality to warrant release, so I've made a Toki Pona to English Translation Service using it (with source and nimi). Here's one of the ways in which it translates the comment I got: I emotion such that: you your language negative such language good. this is negative. "bird liquid" is name simplicity. from which it's said you your to want such that: word very belonging to winged animal? that is blunder. I emotion such this: you your knowledge no such way belonging to talking good. I language such that: manner good is simplicity. you your wisdom not knowledge such language I? P.S. language belonging to number -th tall is negative many. O hey! away such number -th tall. that is way material wealth! way money is bad! that is blunder! — People Wasolitawa It actually came out much better than I expected. Toki Pona's ambiguity is through the roof, so it's only possible to get a summary understanding even if you speak the language. That's the nature of the beast. As Cody put it: In order to speak Toki Pona correctly, you have to imagine yourself on an island, totally separate from all civilization, roughing it jungle style and such. Thus a flashlight would really be a "box of light". — Jan Nasacody (Cody Woodard) As for the comment itself, our combined understanding of it from both manual and automatic translations is that J. Wasolitawa doesn't like my criticism of the language and thinks that I want too much from it. One of the best bits of translation was Cody's "there's been a clashing of zens"; my zen isn't the same as Toki Pona's zen. Well I refute that: I think that the concept is fine, but the implementation leaves a lot to be desired, as can hopefully be seen from our combined translation effort. The fact remains that English allows one to get much closer to Toki Pona nature via its expansive vocabulary, because in Toki Pona you have to be circumlocutionary, whereas in English you can use words such as "circumlocutionary" to sum up what'd be a whole paragraph of repeated words in Toki Pona whilst still missing the point. And we think the P.S. is something to do with numbers being a nasty side-effect of commerce. Which is just wonderful. How else can one count how many butterflies have been seen on a particular day but with numbers? If I've misunderstood the Toki Pona way and that way is actually to eradicate every single thing of meaning and value to us, then perhaps there is a clashing of zens after all. After all, as D.T. Sukuki said, "Zen is not nihilism". But I don't think Toki Pona is either: it's quite pretty sometimes.
#TokiPona #language #translation #toki #toki_pana #sona #anno2005
- El Toki pona está catalogado como un idioma construido, muy fácil de aprender porque cuenta con solo 123 palabras y 14 fonemas; además, está configurado para influir explícitamente en los procesos mentales de sus hablantes en un sentido positivo y relajado. En el Toki pona las palabras se componen, descriptivamente, a partir de los 123 términos raíz: por ejemplo, en lugar de que haya una palabra para amigo, el término se compone por persona-buena-conmigo. Y aunque pudiéramos pensar que se trata de un simple juego lingüístico, lo cierto es que está suficientemente bien diseñado para que desde 2001 se enseñe, como un curso complementario, en el Instituto de Tecnología de Massachusetts. Actualmente existen decenas de tokiponaparlantes, muchos de los cuales pueden ser ubicados enredes como Twitter, Identi.ca o Facebook.
#TokiPona #Identica #group #community #kulupu #sona #anno2012
- Mais en 2016 et pour la première fois, les rectifications orthographiques sont appliquées par les programmes eux-mêmes et la consigne devient la même en primaire et au collège ("L'enseignement de l'orthographe a pour référence les rectifications orthographiques publiées par le Journal officiel de la République française le 6 décembre 1990"). Ce n'est d'ailleurs pas sans mal : les deux premières versions des programmes ne respectaient pas les rectifications, preuve de leur caractère artificiel, et il a fallu une relecture attentive de la troisième et dernière version des programmes pour qu'elles soient enfin appliquées.
#réforme #orthographe #Najat #Belkacem #sona_sitelen #anno2017
- Toki Pona and CopyRight : an IRC geek discussion about its possible implications
Time Nick Message
00:13 jeffreykegler muvets: good luck. til Monday is not much time.
00:14 jeffreykegler I've put together a youtube playlist of Marpa videos -- there's 4, but one is an interview and one is in Russian.
00:15 jeffreykegler Of the talks, the one by Stephen Flitman is most recent, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1SjsfAQiSg&list=PLrSLalZGd6yLq_CqWkbti8m18iL0d4hqE&index=2
00:15 jeffreykegler (most recent in English, that is)
00:16 jeffreykegler I've yet to listen to it through a 2nd time, but Dr. Flitman goes throw things very slowly, and at a very basic level --
00:21 jeffreykegler BNF-driven parsing, once better known than regular expressions, has fallen off the radar, so explaining Marpa become much like, say, explaining a checkbook balancing app to an audience that does not know how to balance a checkbook or why one would want to.
00:22 jeffreykegler Much as I *love* to see folks give talks on Marpa, if you are starting from scratch, you might want to talk about your project, about toki pona, and say about Marpa ...
00:24 jeffreykegler "and I'm planning to use Marpa which looks really cool" and a few remarks about what you hope to get out of it, and some random thoughts from what you've learned by Monday.
06:07 mvuets jeffreykegler: thanks for the playlist! i was able to find these videos individually before, but now i see it's all that we have so far, too sad
06:08 mvuets thanks for the advise, i'll follow it. technically my talk isn't on Marpa. Marpa is an excuse to give a non-tech talk in a tech meetup (-:
06:09 mvuets if everything works out well, i'll be giving a similar talk in a workshop, but using Perl 6 built-in grammars instead of Marpa
16:17 jeffreykegler muvets: note that perl6 built-in grammars are essentially top-down, in different packaging
16:17 jeffreykegler That is, they're a kind of semi-automated recursive descent.
16:18 jeffreykegler Typically, top-down cannot handle NLP grammars.
16:23 jeffreykegler Also, is Toki Pona not "open source"?
16:25 jeffreykegler The only thing mentioned on their website is a book which you have to buy: http://tokipona.org/
16:26 jeffreykegler It's OK for the full book to be behind a paywall, but there seems to be no "open source" reference doc.
17:55 mvuets jeffreykegler: the website had been rather abandoned for a long time. there are many good open resources elsewhere. wikibooks has a decent bunch of lessons
17:56 mvuets here are some references - https://www.reddit.com/r/tokipona/comments/3dfwes/duolingo_toki_pona_or_some_place_where_i_can/
17:56 jeffreykegler Well, in particular, I was looking for an authoritative grammar
17:57 jeffreykegler I can find on-line lessons about Oracle, but that doesn't make it open-source.
17:58 mvuets i might be wrong, but i am afraid authoritative grammar is only available in that book, yes
17:58 mvuets not sure what was the state on a moment when the language was release into the public though
17:58 mvuets perhaps the site had official grammar and dictionary
17:59 mvuets and here is a paper on the formal grammar that i mentioned earlier - http://www2.hawaii.edu/~chin/661F12/Projects/ztomaszewski.pdf
18:01 jeffreykegler Just to be clear, Sonja has every right to sell a book about Toki Pona, and TP would still be open source ...
18:02 jeffreykegler Roberto, for example, has a Lua book which is not free and not on-line.
18:02 mvuets sure, i see your point. i think you are saying that so far she is _only_ selling a book
18:03 jeffreykegler But his *reference docs* are on-line and open source and this would be a problem if it is not the case with Toki Pona
18:03 mvuets you raised a good issue, i'll keep it in mind and try to investigate it when have an opportunity
18:04 jeffreykegler The Tomaszewski article or its references may contain a grammar. I'll look into it later.
18:06 mvuets it does, it's what i'll by trying to run with Marpa
18:07 jeffreykegler I note in skimming that the Toki Pona grammar is ambiguous, which means Marpa may be just about the only thing out there that will handle TP
18:08 mvuets hehe, that's even better!
18:09 mvuets looking into the web.archive.org i reckon TP just has never been properly "open sourced"
18:09 mvuets http://web.archive.org/web/20110813111549/http://en.tokipona.org/wiki/Category:Grammar
18:09 mvuets http://web.archive.org/web/20110728120132/http://en.tokipona.org/wiki/Category:Toki_Pona_words
18:10 mvuets some attempts, but not complete and not comprehensive
18:10 jeffreykegler I was into a language called Loglan a while ago, and the creator retroactively slapped a copyright on it and closed it.
18:11 jeffreykegler Loglan had actually gotten a Scientific American article, back when SciAm was very prestigious.
18:11 jeffreykegler Anyway, I don't believe he ever made a dime from this move, but it meant a lot of folks had wasted their time.
18:12 jeffreykegler That experience makes me cautious here.
18:12 mvuets oh. and what does it mean to copyright *a language*?
18:13 jeffreykegler In fact, I believe under common law, languages are one of the things that explicitly cannot be copyrighted ...
18:14 jeffreykegler but the practical effect if that you'd be open to expensive litigation.
18:15 jeffreykegler And I can't imagine anyone wanting to learn a copyrighted language.
18:16 jeffreykegler The Loglan effort forked over that by the way, and Lobjan is the open source fork.
18:17 mvuets i see! now i get the Loglan vs. Lobjan difference
18:21 mvuets i think i got a partial answer to your question. i own a hard copy of the official book and it actually has the following copyright notice
18:22 mvuets pp. 1--22 and pp. 91--124 are under CC-BY-NC 4.0
18:23 mvuets weird that first range covers 3 of 19 lessons only
18:24 mvuets second range is misc. dictionaries (phrase book, sign language, etc.)
18:24 jeffreykegler I guess that means that those pages could be scanned and put on-line
18:24 mvuets and the Official Toki Pona dictionary is "in the public domain".
18:25 jeffreykegler The "non-commercial" is a problem also, but that's another topic.
18:26 mvuets i presume the rest that's not mentioned is under "regular copyright law"? there is a "© 2014 Sonja Lang"
18:26 jeffreykegler All that she has to open source is the material necessary for reference.
18:28 jeffreykegler Re the non-commercial -- it is unlikely to stop the mega-corporations from doing whatever they like but it will stop small businesses, consultants, etc. ...
18:28 jeffreykegler so the effect is likely to be the opposite of the real intention.
18:28 mvuets sigh
18:28 jeffreykegler And it is also a fact that useful stuff comes via for-profit megacorporations.
18:29 jeffreykegler I don't know how I'd live without Google search
18:29 mvuets i am glad to find out that the dictionary is in public domain, yet it does not suffice as there is no "open" grammar reference, as you also pointed out
18:29 jeffreykegler and I certainly find Github useful.
18:30 jeffreykegler Sonja may not be well versed in these issues -- those of us in the software realm have been forced to learn this stuff the hard way ...
18:30 jeffreykegler and are still learning.
18:31 jeffreykegler For example, I've been over 4 decades in the computer business, but was just educated by the Marpa community re the MIT license ...
18:32 jeffreykegler which Marpa is changing over to.
18:32 mvuets interesting! i don't know much about legal issues like this. sadly for me
18:32 jeffreykegler or happily for you :-)
18:33 mvuets could be (-: how is Marpa licenced now?
18:34 jeffreykegler A mix, with the trend towards MIT. For details see the docs.
20:02 mvuets does the position of a pseudorule :discard within a grammar description matter?
20:16 pczarn mvuets: the position in relation to other rules? no, doesn't matter
20:21 pczarn mvuets: The set of rules is unordered. Choose any ordering, but :discard is usually placed near the end
20:24 mvuets pczarn: makes sense, thanks
21:00 pczarn I have an idea: complete Earley sets can be sorted by postdot nonterminal symbols or their absence (before memoization)
21:01 pczarn I'd like to ask if this is worth implementing and optimizing
23:59 jeffreykegler pczarn: re http://irclog.perlgeek.de/marpa/2015-07-21#i_10933923 -- almost everyone does index entries by postdot symbol -- Marpa certainly does.
23:59 jeffreykegler And IIRC Earley suggests it in his original paper.
#TokiPona #mention #sona #anno2015
- Subject: Wikipedia in Planned Languages ( was Re: Wikipedia in Ido) From: "Donald J. HARLOW" <[log in to unmask]> Reply-To: International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]> Date: Mon, 10 Jan 2005 17:09:53 -0800 Content-Type: text/plain Parts/Attachments: Parts/Attachments text/plain (32 lines) For the interested, here are figures for numbers of articles as of today (last figures, somewhat more than a month and a half ago, in parentheses) Esperanto - eo.wikipedia.org - 19,608 (18,133) Ido - io. wikipedia.org - 1,906 (1,180) Interlingua - ia.wikipedia.org - 1,352 (1,386) Interlingue - ie.wikipedia.org - 150 (118) Lojban - jbo.wikipedia.org - 60 (35) Klingon - tlh.wikipedia.org - 50 (48) Volapuk - vo.wikipedia.org - 44 (44) Klingon and Volapuk remain stagnant; Interlingua has (again) actually _lost_ some articles and has been passed by Ido, whose presence in the Wikipedia world remains (relatively) small but is growing nicely. Both Interlingue and Lojban show good growth, within the limits imposed by small-number statistics. Lojban, which was formerly at the bottom of the list, has now climbed above both Volapuk and Klingon, the latter of which -- despite the comment in the article from "Wyborcza" that I just posted -- seems to be very small and very stagnant. I've removed Toki Pona from the list. The on-line news/opinion/zine "Libera Folio" ( http://www.liberafolio.org/ ) reports today that the Esperanto Wikipedia appears to be the most popular Esperanto site on-line, with some 3000 visits daily. -- Don HARLOW http://www.webcom.com/~donh/don/don.html Opinions (in English): http://www.harlows.org/don/opinions/ Esperanto (in English): http://www.harlows.org/don/esperanto/ Literaturo (Esperante): http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/Literaturo
#TokiPona #mention #Wikipedia #stop #sona #Wikipesija #pini #anno2005
- SIMPLE1540 : a simple English wikipedia word list
based on the XML export of all articles related to the nine major groups: Everyday life, Geography, History, Knowledge, Language, Literature, People, Religion, and Science and retaining all word forms appearing 7 times or more in this corpus. The total number of words in this corpus is well over the 100.000 words.
a A.D. ability able about above absence abstinence abstract academic academy accent accept access accord account across act action active activity actual actually ad add addition adherent adjective adult advance advice affect after again against age agnostic agnosticism ago agree agreement agriculture air alcohol all allow ally almost alone along alphabet also although always amateur amendment among amount an analysis ancient and angel animal annals anonymous another answer anthropomorphism any anyone anything aphasia appear apple apply approach archaeology architecture area argue argument around arrange art article artificial artist ask aspect associate association astronomy at atheism atheist atomic attack attempt attribute audience author authority available average avoid award away B.C. baby back background backpack bad bah balance band baptism base basic basis battle BCE be bear beautiful beauty because become bed bee before begin behavior behind being belief believe believing belong below best better between beyond bias biblical bibliography big billion biological biology birth bit black blind blood blue body book born both bottom boundary box boy brain branch bring brown buffalo build building bull burn business but by c. ca. calendar call can cancer canon capital caption car carbon card carry case cassette cat category cathedral catholic cause cell center central century cerebral certain change chapel chapter character chemical chemistry child china China choice choir choose chronicle church circumcise circumcision cite citizen city civil civilian civilization claim clan class classical cleanup clear clergy click climate close closer clothes clothing coast coauthor code codex cognitive col cold collection college colonization colony color column com come commentary commission common commonly communicate communication communion communist community companion company compare competition complete complex compose composer computer concept conception concern condition confuse confusion congregational connect connection conquer conquest consciousness consider consistent constitution construct construction contain contemporary content context continent continue contrary control convention conversation conversion convert cook cooking copy core correct could council country course court cover covered create creation credit crime critical criticism crop cross crust cultural culture current currently daily damage dark data date day dead death debt decadence decadent decide declaration decline deconstruction deep define definition deity demonstrate denomination department depth describe description design detail determinism developed development device devil diagnosis dialect dictionary die difference different difficult difficulty diphthong dipstick direct directly dirt disagree disambiguation disbelief discipline discover discovery discussion disease disorder distance distinct distinction distinguish distribution divide divine do doctor doctrine document dog don't door down Dr. dream drink drown druid due during dynasty each earlier early earth easier easily easy eat economic economics economy ed edge edit edition editor education effect eight either electric electricity electronic element elevation else emperor empire encyclopedia end energy engine engineering enlightenment enough enter entertainment environment environmental epic episode equal era error especially establish etc. etymology even event eventually ever every everyday everyone everything evidence evil evolution evolve exact exactly example except exchange exist existence expansion experience experiment expert explain explanation express expression external extinct face fact failure fair faith fall false family famous far fast father feature feel feeling female feudal few fiction field fight figure file find finding fire first fish fit five fix flow folk follow food for force foreign foreskin form formal former fortune fought foundation founded four fourth frame framework free freedom frequently friend from front fruit full function functional further future gas general generally generation genre geographer geographic geographical geography geology geometry germ get give glass global go god gold golden good government grammar great greatly green ground group grow growth guide guillotine hair half hall hand handbook handicap handle happen happens happiness happy hard have he head heading health hear heat heaven help hemisphere her here heritage hero high highly him himself his historian historical historiography history hold holy home homo hope hot hour house how however human hundred hunter hypothesis hysteresis I ice icon idea identify identity if illiteracy illiterate illusory image importance important impossible improve in inc. incense include increase indeed independence independent indigenous individual industrial industry influence information inquiry inside instead institute institution instrument instrumentation intellectual intelligence interlinear internal international internet interpretation into introduce introduction invent invention involve iron island issue it IT itself job join journal journalism judge just keep key kill kind king kingdom know knowledge la LA label lack lake lamp land landlocked landscape language large last late later law lead leader leap learn learned least leave legacy legal legend let letter level lexeme library life light lightning like likely limited line linguistic linguistics link liquid list literacy literary literature little liturgy live local location logic logical long longer look lord lore lose lot love low lower mac machine magazine magic magnetic magnum mail main mainly major make male mammal man mankind manuscript many map march March mark market mass material mathematical mathematics matter may May me mean meaning meant measure measurement meat median medical medicine medieval mediterranean medium meet member memory men mental mention mercury message metal method mid middle might migrate migration military millennium million mind minister minute misconception miss model modern modernism modernist moment money monologue monophthong month monument moon moral morality more morning most mostly mother mount mountain mouth move movement much museum music musical musicians must my myth mythology name narrative nation national nationality native natural naturalism naturally nature near nearly necessarily necessary need negative neither neologism network neurogenesis neuron neuroscience never new news newspaper next night nine no non none nor normal normally not note nothing noun novel now nuclear number object objective objectivity observation observe occupation occur ocean octane of off offer office official officially often oil old older on once one online only open opera opposite or oral orbit order org organization organize origin original originally orthography orthology other others our out outer outside over own oxygen p. pack pagan page paint palace paper paradigm parent parish park part participant particular particularly party pas pass past pasta pattern pay peace peer penguin penis people per percent percentage perception performance perhaps period peroxide persecution person personal personality perspective persuasion pet phenomenon philosopher philosophical philosophy phoneme phonetic phonetics photo phrase physic physical picture piece pilgrimage place plan planet plant plat plate play please poem poems poet poetry point pole police policy political politics polytheism polytheistic popular population position positive possession possible possibly post power powerful pp. practical practice praise pray prayer precise predict prediction prehistory present preserve press prevent priest primary principle print printing private probably problem process produce product production professional program project pronounce pronunciation proof property prophet propose prose proselytism protection protein provide province psychological psychology public publication publish publisher publishing punishment pure purpose put pyramid quantum question quickly quite quote race racial rack radiation radio rain range rate rather read reader real realism reality really reason receive recent recently reclamation recognize record recreation red ref refer reference referred reform reformation regard region reign rejection relate relation relationship relatively relativity reliable relic religion religious remain remember remove renaissance replace report republic request require research researcher resource respect response result resurrection retrieve return revelation revert review revision revival revolution rhetoric rich right rise ritual river rock role room royal rule ruled ruler run rural sacred sacrifice safe saga sage saint salad same sample satellite saw say schizophrenia scholar school science scientific scientist scope sea search second secondary section secular see seek seem selection self sense sent sentence separate sequence series service set seven several sexual shall shaman shape share she short should show shrine side sign significant silence similar simple simply since single situation six size skill skin slavery sleep slightly slow small smell smith snake so social society sociology soft soil solar soldier solid soliloquy some someone something sometimes song soon sortable sound source space speak speaker special specie specific speech speed spell spirit spiritual spirituality split sport spread square st. stage stain standard star start state statement station statistic statistical statue status stick still stone stop story strange strap strong structure struggle stub student study stutter style subject successful such sugar suggest sun sung sunlight superior superiority supernatural support suppose supreme sure surface survey surveyor sushi sustainability sustainable sweat symbol symbolic system table take talk tam tan task teach teacher teaching technique technology tectonics teeth tell temperature template temple ten term terminology territory tertiary test testament text textual than thank that the their theism them themselves then theology theoretical theory therapy there therefore thesaurus these they thick thing think third this those though thought thousand three through throughout thumb thus ticket tight time title to today together toilet tolerance toleration tongue too tool top topic total towards tower trade tradition traditional train translation transport travel treat treatment tree trench trial tribe tried trig true truth try turn twentieth twenty two type typical typically ultimate ultraviolet under understand understood union unit united universal universe university unknown unsortable until up upon upper urban urbanization usage use useful usually valley value van vandalism various vassal vegetable verb verbal verse version very video view violence virgin visit vitamin vocabulary voice vol. volume vowel vs. wale wall want war warm warmer wash waste water wave way we weak wealth wear weather web website weight well what when where whether which while white who whole whom whose why wide widely wild wilderness will window wisdom wise witch witchcraft with within without witness woman word work worker world worship would write writer writing wrong yam year yellow you young your
China, March and May made this list because china, march and may are on it and I didn't want to decide in favor of the common noun or the proper noun; all other proper nouns have been omitted (even the ten other months that met the criterium of appearing more then 6 times).
#SimpleWikipedia #SimpleEnglish #wordlist #English #words #level1540 #Inli #nimi #selo1540
- The Mastery of Languages, or the Art of speaking Foreign Tongues idiomatically
Thomas Prendergast | 1864 [p.164]
A LIST OF THE COMMONEST ENGLISH WORDS, DECLINABLE AND INDECLINABLE.
[184 words ; lemmatised by me; listing might apart from may was my decision ]
He adds following numbers:
And he did retain also following negatives:
Thomas Prendergast published this extremely interesting list in 1864, long before Dolch, Fry and others. Long, long before computerized language corpora. And it's strikingly accurated in many aspects, IMHO - apart from the strange appearance of the word upper, that is.
The list descripted in his own words:
"Annexed is a list of the commonest words of
the language, both declinable and indeclinable.
Four of these, on an average, will be found in
every line of an English book, and in every col-
loquial sentence containing a dozen words. This
list is not to be learned by heart, nor is it intended
to be used in any way by the beginner. Its object
is merely to show which are the most essential
words in all languages, in order that they may be
introduced into the sentences which are to be
translated and given to beginners. There are no
nouns included in the list, because it is for the
learner himself to select and insert those which
he will have most occasion to use at first. It may
be said that the list contains merely what all
grammars exhibit; but this method prohibits the
use of grammars and all other English books at
the outset." [pp.162-163]
- EL BOOKEl Book is a free primer for Spanish speakers on the bare essentials of English. It was designed for people with no certain address, little access to advanced technology, and not a lot of formal education.#ElBook #Spanish #survival #English #guide #Inli #Epanja #puku