Bradley M. Kuhn email@example.com
originally from Baltimore, MD, USA.
President and Distinguished Technologist at Software Freedom Conservancy. On the Board of Directors of the Free Software Foundation. Generally, a Software Freedom advocate, GPL Enforcer, and Occasional developer..
Don't hear this every day
At PDX, they just called "Passenger Aquaponic Man, please return to security for an important left behind item.". Realizing it must have sounded strange, the next announcement was "Passenger with the screenname of Aquaponic Man...".
This makes me want to make a screen saver on all my devices that says: "TSA is security theater", just in case I leave one behind. I guess that's a certain way to never get it back. :)
Claes Wallin (韋嘉誠) shared this.
That “My Ears are Burning” Thing Is Definitely Apocryphal
I've posted in the past about the Oracle vs. Google case. I'm for the moment sticking to my habit of only commenting when there is a clear court decision. Having been through litigation as the 30(b)(6) witness for Conservancy, I'm used to court testimony and why it often doesn't really matter in the long run. So much gets said by both parties in a court case that it's somewhat pointless to begin analyzing each individual move, unless it's for entertainment purposes only. (It's certainly as entertaining as most TV dramas, really, but I hope folks who are watching step-by-step admit to themselves that they're just engaged in entertainment, not actual work. :)
I saw a lot go by today with various people as witnesses in the case. About the only part that caught my attention was that Classpath was mentioned over and over again. But that's not for any real salient reason, only because I remember so distinctly, sitting in a little restaurant in New Orleans with RMS and Paul Fisher, talking about how we should name this yet-to-be-launched GNU project “$CLASSPATH”. My idea was that was a shell variable that would expand to /usr/lib/java, so, in my estimation, it was a way to name the project “User Libraries for Java” without having to say the words. (For those of you that were still children in the 1990s, trademark aggression by Sun at the time on the their word mark for “Java” was fierce, it was worse than the whole problem the Unix trademark, which led in turn to the GNU name.)
But today, as I saw people all of the Internet quoting judges, lawyers and witnesses saying the word “Classpath” over and over again, it felt a bit weird to think that, almost 20 years ago sitting in that restaurant, I could have said something other than Classpath and the key word in Court today might well have been whatever I'd said. Court cases are, as I said, dramatic, and as such, it felt a little like having my own name mentioned over and over again on the TV news or something. Indeed, I felt today like I had some really pointless, one-time-use superpower that I didn't know I had at the time. I now further have this feeling of: “darn, if I knew that was the one thing I did that would catch on this much, I'd have tried to do or say something more interesting”.
Naming new things, particularly those that have to replace other things that are non-Free, is really difficult, and, at least speaking for myself, I definitely can't tell when I suggest a name whether it is any good or not. I actually named another project, years later, that could theoretically get mentioned in this case, Replicant. At that time, I thought Replicant was a much more creative name than Classpath. When I named Classpath, I felt it was somewhat obvious corollary to the “GNU'S Not Unix” line of thinking. I also recall distinctly that I really thought the name lost all its cleverness when the $ and the all-caps was dropped, but RMS and others insisted on that :).
Anyway, my final message today is to the court transcribers. I know from chatting with the court transcribers during my depositions in Conservancy's GPL enforcement cases that technical terminology is really a pain. I hope that the term I coined that got bandied about so much in today's testimony was not annoying to you all. Really, no one thinks about the transcribers in all this. If we're going to have lawsuits about this stuff, we should name stuff with the forethought of making their lives easier when the litigation begins. :)
I've been using Emacs for 20 years. I always replace-string with M-x repl<TAB>str<TAB><RET>. I don't really know why I never mapped this to a key. Anyway, it's now C-x M-r
Kete Foy shared this.Show all 5 replies
You know you are both a Free Software geek and a USA Politics geek when you are home on a Saturday night (like every Saturday night) and you install the CBSN plugin on your Debian Kodi box so you can watch the live stream of the White House Correspondent's Dinner.
I guess I'm glad it doesn't say Fredo?
As phone geeks know, old-school PSTN (which we used to call POTS :) has caller-id with name, but the name field was limited to 15 characters.
My mobile phone is in the name of my employer, Software Freedom Conservancy, not me personally. As such, I'm constantly reminded by people who have standard caller-id with name phones that my caller-id info comes through with:
I'm somewhat inclined to ask my mobile provider to drop the space, so it would be "SOFTWAREFREEDOM".
It got me thinking that it would be really cool if it was typoed and said "Software Frodo". I kinda feel like a software industry version of Frodo much of the time. Although I don't know what the ring is in this analogy.hey, you know the GNU Linux-libre mascot, the light blue penguin fresh out of the shower, is called Freedo, right? I'd be honored to have such a caller id ;-) the only way to beat that would be to have a gnu in there somewhere!
@firstname.lastname@example.org the ring might be proprietary software (or proprietary software licenses). Tempting people to use, causing insanity in those that cloak themselves with it. Once someone is under its spell it is difficult to break them of it despite how much peace freedom would give them.
Claes Wallin (韋嘉誠) likes this.
My Application to Debian
I abandoned my previous DD application back in 2003 due to lack of time, and after 13 years, it's clear to me that I will never have time unless I put time aside for it.
Plus the new-ish non-uploading DD is *exactly* the right type of affiliation (although someday I may want to maintain packages, I don't know when that will be) for me.
So, if you're a DD and would like to advocate for my application as a non-uploading DD, please visit this URL with your Debian credentials active and click the link "advocate for DD, non-upl":
NYS Does Not Respect Its Citizens' Software Freedom
I have gladly left the horrible state of New York, but in case you were wondering, there is now no way to file with a computer in NYS using only Free Software, even while people at the NYS statehouse claim to be passing Free Software friendly laws.
For my partial year, I can't do that. The PDF fill_in now uses features available only in Adobe Acrobat: https://www.tax.ny.gov/pit/ads/efile_addit203-2d.htm
So, I'm seriously considering hand writing my return for the first time in more than a decade. I could use flpsed or other such tool to overlay text onto the boxes, but that's more work and why should I got to trouble to make their OCR job easier when NYS refuses to respect my software freedom?
(The federal form fill-ins (1040, etc.) seem to continue to work fine with Evince. e-filing at the federal level has always required a third-party vendor, and I know of none that are Free Software friendly, but that's a slightly different issue. NYs provides the e-filing directly on their own website.)Show all 5 replies
>> Hubert Figuière:
“In Canada I can't file electronically unless I use a third party from the Intuit lobby, or a CPA.
So I send a stack of paper.”
I'm in Canada too; I use one of the online services who provide free returns for seniors. I hate the situation, and comes the revolution ...
Answer Your Own Questions
Do I support Bernie Sanders for President? Of course I do.
Do I agree with everything he says? Not necessarily.
Am I really annoyed that his preferred way to make a point is to ask a question and answer it himself? I surely am.
Seriously, what I said a few weeks ago, I think, still holds. Bernie is playing for second. What I haven't figured out yet is what he is going to ask Clinton for to drop out. Maybe he hasn't figured it out either.
And, as I always say, I *hate* the two party system.Whenever anyone brings up the 2-party system we should all mention the optimal solution: Score voting. http://scorevoting.net/
For all this tactical stuff, Nader says Sanders made a mistake by saying he would still support the Democrats over the Republicans if he didn't win. Nader sees it where Sanders puts up a huge challenge, and then asks for real significant reforms from the nominee in exchange for his endorsement in the general. I think Sanders felt that assuring people that supporting him wouldn't increase any threat of a crazy Republican getting elected was the more important pursuit…
Sanders getting ready to drop out.
If you speak politics-ese, and you heard Bernie Sanders on This Week this morning, you know that he has clearly decided to drop out of the race eventually. His comments were completely focused on how he'll get votes in certain states and certain demographics.
This is good politics, of course, but still sad. I guess I don' t have to do that dance I do every four years where, when there is an actual progressive candidate in the Democratic primary, I have to consider switching my party affiliation from Green temporarily just to vote in the primary. I am sure Bernie will drop out by the time Oregon has its primary.
Every four years, I'm particularly jealous of those of you who live in actually modern societies that use the Parlimentary system.
Douglas Perkins likes this.Show all 7 repliesWhy would Sanders consider dropping out of the race just as he finally begins claiming a lead over Clinton nationally? It amazes me how quickly people write him off after any sort of loss. Anyone who speaks "politics-ese" knows he didn't have much of a chance in South Carolina. That doesn't mean he has no chance in Georgia, Texas, or Massachusetts.
He has also said he'll stay in the race all the way up to the convention. He isn't dropping out. If you're worried he'll lose, how about getting out and canvassing for him instead of giving up? Knock on doors, make phone calls, or donate some money to his campaign. We all know he needs all the help he can get.
All I know, is that this year is totally not the typical story. The typical one would be where I say I'm not 100% supportive of every position, but I'm voting for Bernie Sanders and people say "who?" like they did for Kucinich in 2008. Bernie is comparable to Nader and Kucinich in lots of ways, but they never had anything like what
Bernie has going.
I'm still holding out hope that Bernie gets far enough that we get to see what powerful interests do to really take him down rather than him just petering out. I want to see what it looks like if the powers are really concerned. Honestly, raising $40+ million in the month of February is nothing I would have ever expected in this case. That's not something from a campaign about to close.
I bet it won't happen, but if Hillary got indicted or something like that, it could shift things…
Anyway, I think it makes far more sense to say "it won't matter, Bernie just won't win, but I'll vote for him in Oregon" than to say "he'll drop out before Oregon". I would *bet* on him still going by the time Oregon votes, but I would not bet on him ending up winning.
I hope the more extreme pundits are correct that this year things really get crazy enough to start undermining the whole Democratic and Republican parties. Trump winning the R's could truly destroy the party.
For the rest of my life, when I hear the phrase "treasuer trove", which Gwenn Ifill just used on the PBS Newshour (on a completely unrelated topic), I will forever and always think of this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HxcuVlCuX9Y&t=1m38s
I'm busy working, but I heard Ifill say "treasuer trove" from the other room and I shouted: "Is it MC ROOOVE?"
Richard Fontana likes this.
I've been making the following social observation frequently in my talks and presentations for the last two years. While I suppose it's rather forward of me to do so, I've decide to name this principle:
For some time now, this paradoxical principle appears to hold: each day, more lines of freely licensed code exist than ever before in human history; yet, it also becomes increasingly more difficult each day for users to successfully avoid proprietary software while completing their necessary work on a computer.
Motivations & Causes of Kuhn's Paradox
I believe this paradox is primarily driven by the cooption of software freedom by companies that ostensibly support Open Source, but have the (now extremely popular) open source almost everything philosophy.
For certain areas of software endeavor, companies dedicate enormous resources toward the authorship of new Free Software for particular narrow tasks. Often, these core systems provide underpinnings and fuel the growth of proprietary systems built on top of them. An obvious example here is OpenStack: a fully Free Software platform, but most deployments of OpenStack add proprietary features not available from a pure upstream OpenStack installation.
Finally, much (possibly a majority of) computer use in industrialized society is via hand-held mobile devices (usually inaccurately described as “mobile phones”). While some of these devices have Free Software operating systems (i.e., Android/Linux), nearly all the applications for all of these devices are proprietary software.
The explosion of for-profit interest in “Open Source” over the last decade has led us to this paradoxical problem, which increases daily — because the gap between “software under a license respects my rights to copy, share, and modify” and “software that's essential for my daily activities” grows linearly wider with each sunset.
I propose herein no panacea; I wish I had one to offer. However, I believe the problem is exacerbated by our community's tendency to ignore this paradox, and its pace even accelerates due to many developers' belief that having a job writing any old Free Software replaces the need for volunteer labor to author more strategic code that advances software freedom.Show all 9 repliesI completely agree with @mlinksva but feel we should be absolutely clear how super important it is that @bkuhn and others continue working to turn more "Open Source" developers into software freedom activists.
I once spent 45 minutes talking to a developer at New Relic before she finally understood the actual issue of why software freedom isn't about developer concerns and is different from just the concepts of "Open Source" she already knew. She wasn't someone who had a stance in these politics, she literally was writing some FLO software and using mostly FLO software while working for a proprietary software company and yet had to patiently talk with me for a long while before it finally clicked that the issues of software freedom even *exist*. That is the state of things today. That is *part* of why the paradox happens. The cause of this ignorance is complex, and is, of course, connected to the control of the messaging from proprietary interests.
Brief addendum: That experience sticks in my head because of how starkly the developer remarked like "OH! I get it. Huh. I've heard these terms and arguments before. And like I was listening for 45 minutes to you, but like suddenly it finally makes sense. Crazy that it took so long to explain. I was just sorting hearing words but it didn't click. But I get now, thanks. Interesting to think about…" I didn't get to find out if it ever went beyond that moment and she thought about it any further afterwards though.
@Aaron Wolf Your comment reminds me of this article I recently read about the ways in which some innovative ideas are spread. The tl;dr is that sometimes it takes a widespread, systematic, repeated person-to-person effort, but it pays off with success in time. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/07/29/slow-ideas
The problem is when we want to be like them. "Give me the free-as-beer Windows" attitude towards Linux (intentionally not using GNU/Linux, but that's another discussion) is repeated here with "Give me the Facebook/Twitter which doesn't bother me with spam". There is no such thing. Yes, certainly there is that we have to accept the limitations of our platform (no latest kewl games on Linux, no participants on pump.io/gnu social/diaspora), but there is a way deeper issue.
The only defense against "Give me the free-as-beer Windows" (or the first question being "How to run Wine on this?") is IMHO in not caring about what peoples do. I didn't care then and I don't care still whether Linux takes over the world, or whether I am able to get laid because of using Linux. I do care, whether I can do things which I want to do with computer, while using Linux, and whether there is sufficient community which allows me to maintain the platform in future.
Some platforms which I hoped for and invested in, did not manage to get over the first step, but it seems that CyanogenMod with F-Droid (and without Google Play store) seems to work pretty well (with one or two sideloaded APKs). And yes, another concession is that the only Chat where are actually people I want to talk with is Facebook Chat. Fortunately, here at least I can be (on my side) FLOSS-pure ... pidgin talking over XMPP with spectrum makes miracles.
I randomly heard something on my first of two flights to FOSDEM that made me think of the Dead Kennedys. It was just 2 hrs ago but I can't recall what it was. I was inspired, despite that I almost never listen to music on purpose, I grabbed a few Dead Kennedys albums out of my archives.
I suppose I'm incredibly biased given that they are my favorite band in history, but I'm amazed at how well their stuff holds up. The political predictions and concerns they had, while sometimes juvenile in thier expression, are more or less what *was* happening and the types of political problems they describe persist.
I *do* notice a certain obsession with their own industry; I'd forgotten how many of their songs were mostly or partly about the problems of the music industry itself. While I suspect those problems have gotten worse (not better) too, I am reminded at how easy it is for politicial insiders to tend toward what the PR people call "inside baseball".
My problem in Free Software is, like fontana, I just *love* the so-called "inside baseball". I mean, people forget that baseball fans love it when people talk "inside baseball". Yes, it's limited in its interest scope, but the details matter.DK is one of my all-time favorites, as well. Used to cover some of their songs in a former band of mine. "Pull My Strings" is the "inside baseball" song that immediately came to mind after reading this. NOFX is another punk band that spends a lot of time talking about the music industry, or even narrower, the state of punk rock itself.
BTW, Jello Biafra is still making music in a group called "Jello Biafra and the Guantanamo School of Medicine" which is also (as if the name didn't give it away) very political.
It's always nice to hear of a fellow Dead Kennedys fan. Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables, In God We Trust Inc, and Give Me Convenience or Give Me Death are three of my favorite albums, and carry the body of some of their best work.
Also, Kinky Sex Makes the World Go Round feels chillingly accurate.
Key Charities That Advance Software Freedom Are Worthy of Your Urgent Support
[This blog was crossposted on Software Freedom Conservancy's website]
I've had the pleasure and the privilege, for the last 20 years, to be either a volunteer or employee of the two most important organizations for the advance of software freedom and users' rights to copy, share, modify and redistribute software. In 1996, I began volunteering for the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and worked as its Executive Director from 2001–2005. I continued as a volunteer for the FSF since then, and now serve as a volunteer on FSF's Board of Directors. I was also one of the first volunteers for Software Freedom Conservancy when we founded it in 2006, and I was the primary person doing the work of the organization as a volunteer from 2006–2010. I've enjoyed having a day job as a Conservancy employee since 2011.
These two organizations have been the center of my life's work. Between them, I typically spend 50–80 hours every single week doing a mix of paid and volunteer work. Both my hobby and my career are advancing software freedom.
I choose to give my time and work to these organizations because they provide the infrastructure that make my work possible. The Free Software community has shown that the work of many individuals, who care deeply about a cause but cooperate together toward a common goal, has an impact greater than any individuals can ever have working separately. The same is often true for cooperating organizations: charities, like Conservancy and the FSF, that work together with each other amplify their impact beyond the expected.
Both Conservancy and the FSF pursue specific and differing approaches and methods to the advancement of software freedom. The FSF is an advocacy organization that raises awareness about key issues that impact the future of users' freedoms and rights, and finds volunteers and pays staff to advocate about these issues. Conservancy is a fiscal sponsor, which means one of our key activities is operational work, meeting the logistical and organizational needs of volunteers so they can focus on the production of great Free Software and Free Documentation. Meanwhile, both Conservancy and FSF dedicated themselves to sponsoring software projects: the FSF through the GNU project, and Conservancy through its member projects. And, most importantly, both charities stand up for the rights of users by enforcing and defending copyleft licenses such as the GNU GPL.
Conservancy and the FSF show in concrete terms that two charities can work together to increase their impact. Last year, our organizations collaborated on many projects, such as the proposed FCC rule changes for wireless devices, jointly handled a GPL enforcement action against Canonical, Ltd., published the principles of community-oriented GPL enforcement, and continued our collaboration on copyleft.org. We're already discussing lots of ways that the two organizations can work together in 2016! Your browser does not support the element. Perhaps you can or ?
I'm proud to give so much of my time and energy to both these excellent organizations. But, I also give my money as well: I was the first person in history to become an Associate Member of the FSF (back in November 2002), and have gladly paid my monthly dues since then. Today, I also signed up as an annual Supporter of Conservancy, because I'm want to ensure that Conservancy's meets its current pledge match — the next 215 Supporters who sign up before January 31st will double their donation via the match.
For just US$20 each month, you make sure the excellent work of both these organizations can continue. This is quite a deal: if you are employed, University-educated professional living in the industrialized world, US$20 is probably the same amount you'd easily spend on a meals at restaurants or other luxuries. Isn't it even a better luxury to know that these two organizations can have employ a years' worth of effort of standing up for your software freedom in 2016? You can make the real difference by making your charitable contribution to these two organizations today:
Please don't wait: both fundraising deadlines are just six days away!
On keeping good records
This point will be obvious to Free Software developers, who carefully use VCS for records. But, it's worth applying that principle to all aspects of one's life.
I just had an interesting experience: I conflated two events regarding dealing with the IRS and NYS with annual filings (Conservancy's 990 will be on our website soon!). I was on the phone far from my computer, so I told Karen on the phone what I recalled, then when we hung up, I went to my computer to check the details.
It turns out the details were different. It's not surprising that I conflated the matters in my mind, they were both with agencies of "the State" (one being a state and one being federal ;), and they occurred at the same time. Fortunately, I had tons of records, in version control, explaining what I did, when and why. I immediately corrected course based on past knowledge and proceeded.
I'm perhaps overly fastidious with records. I record my precise hourly time and what tasks I spent on. I keep nearly all files of importance in version control. I journal regularly. I often follow up phone calls with: "I'll send you an email with the action items we've both taken responsibility for". This not only saves me from forgetting or being confused, it means I know when others renege on political deals and the like.
I wasn't always like this. I once worked for a boss who used to answer my written concerns about the organization with one line: "Not by email", and then would insist on meetings where he'd verbally berate me for hours. I started keeping detailed notes during the meetings, which infuriated him further.
Manipulators, con artists, and the like hate the idea of written records. Such people have learned the simple fact that human memory is fallible. And forgetfulness isn't the real part. It's mis-remembering that is so dangerous. (This is part of the reason why gaslighting works, BTW). Keeping written records, made in the moment or immediately after is the best manner to head-off and correct future mistakes, or figure out when you've been manipulated, lied to, or otherwise misled. In short, I learned the hard way to keep good records.
The reason I record as much as I possibly can is you never know what's important. As in my original example, the notes I had about doing the IRS and NYS filings seemed, at the time, like a one-off necessity two years, something that yeas ago I'd easily not have written down. Turns out, they were useful for this year's filings as well, two years later. Always keep good records. Your ease of work, and your safety, could someday depend on it.
Folks at work hate e-mail because it means something is exposed to FOIA. Verbal discussions that aren't recorded cannot be secured via FOIA as the federal FOIA does not require you to create a record to meet a request if it didn't already exist. We're also expected to put the minimum necessary amount of detail in call notes.
My notes generally do reflect what I did to your account if you called, why I did, and cites chapter/verse of the IRM if I had to do something weird. It is a little more than "minimum necessary". Then again, I generally annotate accounts with a view towards potentially having said notes read back to me either in court or before an angry congressional hearing panel.
Douglas Perkins likes this.I recently learned of a new-ish law pertaining to condo associations in the states. Apparently board members are not allowed to conduct business through email, as group email messages between board members are considered private meetings.
I need to look up the details on this, actually . . . I only learned of it yesterday.
Stephen, yeah, I get what you are saying, but I sort of think the FOIA should apply to most of the world. I don't really keep many secrets -- I often have to keep a *list* of the secrets I'm supposed to keep because I forget. I spoiled my dad's thirtieth surprise birthday party when I was a kid. I just believe in transparency, I guess.
Elena ``of Valhalla'' likes this.
I really like cashews. They're expensive, so I typically just buy the "cashew pieces" rather than the whole cashews since I figure it tastes the same, right?
Well, I happened to get a bag of the whole cashews and I'm eating them now. I'm now left trying to figure out if they taste exotic and fancy because it's a splurge and I mearly perceive them as tasting better, but they really taste the same.
It's really strange to think about David Bowie being dead. Not that he was in my generation; he was actually closer to my parents generation (my parents were very young when I was born). But my parents never liked him all that much. I did. I remember in the early 1990s playing Ziggy Stardust in my dorm room and people thought I was just out of sync with time. You know that scene in Muriel's Wedding where her schoolmates make fun of her for liking weird Abba 70s music instead of what was popular? Well, I was kinda like that, and in particular with regard to David Bowie, when I was in my early 20s.
I even bought both Tin Machine albums.
I saw the David Bowie/NIN tour in graduate school.
I thought Outside was a highly underrated concept album. I probably listened to it a couple hundred times.
I remember a cow-orker at Westinghouse looking at the copy of Earthling on my desk and pointing out that we could play "Looking for Satellites" instead of displaying "Searching for Satchan" on the screen of the satellite telephone.
I never talk about music because there hasn't been a song released I liked since the late 1990s. I just lost interest. I don't sit around listening to old stuff -- that would truly make me old. I don't hear music at all unless I'm in a store where it's playing or something like that.
Still, I respect it.
My wife was just watching the BBC and the presenter asked the guest if David Bowie was a genius. Who knows about genius per se, but If he wasn't already wealthy, I think he should have received a MacArthur grant.
Everyone thinks Peter Townsend invented the rock opera. Well, he deserves some credit but I read some of Townsend's autobiogrphy and he talks about discussing the idea with Bowie in the late 1960s before Tommy.
I wanted to have a good ending but I'm a bit too busy to write, so these are just random thoughts (obviously).
Claes Wallin (韋嘉誠) shared this.
I generally preferred the older Bowie stuff to what he produced during my teenage years. Testament to the longevity of his work that great and successful music of the time was outshined by a vast catalog of previous music.
As to new music, luckily my favorite bands have continued to make great music :).
There are also wonderful newer bands. They just aren't pop.
Sun, Oracle, Android, Google and JDK Copyleft FUD
Tuesday 5 January 2016 by Bradley M. Kuhn
I have probably spent more time dealing with the implications and real-world scenarios of copyleft in the embedded device space than anyone. I'm one of a very few people charged with the task of enforcing the GPL for Linux, and it's been well-known for a decade that GPL violations on Linux occur most often in embedded devices such as mobile hand-held computers (aka “phones”) and other such devices.
This experience has left me wondering if I should laugh or cry at the news coverage and pundit FUD that has quickly come forth from Google's decision to move from the Apache-licensed Java implementation to the JDK available from Oracle.
As some smart commenters like Bob Lee have said, there is already at least one essential part of Android, namely Linux itself, licensed as pure GPL. I find it both amusing and maddening that respondents use widespread GPL violation by chip manufacturers as some sort of justification for why Linux is acceptable, but Oracle's JDK is not. Eventually, (slowly but surely) GPL enforcement will adjudicate the widespread problem of poor Linux license compliance — one way or the other. But, that issue is beside the point when we talk of the licenses of code running in userspace. The real issue with that is two-fold.
First, If you think the ecosystem shall collapse because “pure GPL has moved up the Android stack”, and “it will soon virally infect everyone” with copyleft (as you anti-copyleft folks love to say) your fears are just unfounded. Those of us who worked in the early days of reimplementing Java in copyleft communities thought carefully about just this situation. At the time, remember, Sun's Java was completely proprietary, and our goal was to wean developers off Sun's implementation to use a Free Software one. We knew, just as the early GNU developers knew with libc, that a fully copylefted implementation would gain few adopters. So, the earliest copyleft versions of Java were under an extremely weak copyleft called the “GPL plus the Classpath exception”. Personally, I was involved as a volunteer in the early days of the Classpath community; I helped name the project and design the Classpath exception. (At the time, I proposed we call it the “Least GPL” since the Classpath exception carves so many holes in strong copyleft that it's less of a copyleft than even the Lesser GPL and probably the Mozilla Public License, too!)
But, what does the Classpath exception from GNU's implementation have to with Oracle's JDK? Well, Sun, before Oracle's acquisition, sought to collaborate with the Classpath community. Those of us who helped start Classpath were excited to see the original proprietary vendor seek to release their own formerly proprietary code and want to merge some of it with the community that had originally formed to replace their code with a liberated alternative.
Sun thus released much of the JDK under “GPL with Classpath exception”. The reasons were clearly explained (URL linked is an archived version of what once appeared on Sun's website) on their collaboration website for all to see. You see the outcome of that in many files in the now-infamous commit from last week. I strongly suspect Google's lawyers vetted what was merged to made sure that the Android Java SDK fully gets the appropriate advantages of the Classpath exception.
So, how is incorporating Oracle's GPL-plus-Classpath-exception'd JDK different from having an Apache-licensed Java userspace? It's not that much different! Android redistributors already have strong copyleft obligations in kernel space, and, remember that Webkit is LGPL'd; there's also already weak copyleft compliance obligations floating around Android, too. So, if a redistributor is already meeting those, it's not much more work to meet the even weaker requirements now added to the incorporated JDK code. I urge you to ask anyone who says that this change will have any serious impact on licensing obligations and analysis for Android redistributors to please prove their claim with an actual example of a piece of code added in that commit under pure GPL that will combine in some way with Android userspace applications. I admit I haven't dug through the commit to prove the negative, but I'd be surprised if some Google engineers didn't do that work before the commit happened.
You may now ask yourself if there is anything of note here at all. There's certainly less here than most are saying about it. In fact, a Java industry analyst (with more than a decade of experience in the area) told me that he believed the decision was primarily technical. Authors of userspace applications on Android (apparently) seek a newer Java language implementation and given that there was a reasonably licensed Free Software one available, Google made a technical switch to the superior codebase, as it gives API users technically what they want while also reducing maintenance burden. This seems very reasonable. While it's less shocking than what the pundits say, technical reasons probably were the primary impetus.
So, for Android redistributors, are there any actual licensing risks to this change? The answer there is undoubtedly yes, but the situation is quite nuanced, and again, the problem is not as bad as the anti-copyleft crowd says. The Classpath exception grants very wide permissions. Nevertheless, some basic copyleft obligations can remain, albeit in a very weak-copyleft manner. It is possible to violate that weak copyleft, particularly if you don't understand the licensing of all third-party materials combined with the JDK. Still, since you must comply with Linux's license to redistribute Android, complying with the Classpath exception'd stuff will require only a simple afterthought.
Meanwhile, Sun's (now Oracle's) JDK, is likely nearly 100% copyright-held by Oracle. I've written before about the dangers of the consolidation of a copylefted codebase with a single for-profit, commercial entity. I've even pointed out that Oracle specifically is very dangerous in its methods of using copyleft as an aggression.
Copyleft is a tool, not a moral principle. Tools can be used incorrectly with deleterious effect. As an analogy, I'm constantly bending paper clips to press those little buttons on electronic devices, and afterwards, the tool doesn't do what it's intended for (hold papers together); it's bent out of shape and only good for the new, dubious purpose, better served by a different tool. (But, the paper clip was already right there on my desk, you see…)
Similarly, while organizations like Conservancy use copyleft in a principled way to fight for software freedom, others use it in a manipulative, drafter-unintended, way to extract revenue with no intention standing up for users' rights. We already know Oracle likes to use GPL this way, and I really doubt that Oracle will sign a pledge to follow Conservancy's and FSF's principles of GPL enforcement. Thus, we should expect Oracle to aggressively enforce against downstream Android manufacturers who fail to comply with “GPL plus Classpath exception”. Of course, Conservancy's GPL Compliance Project for Linux developers may also enforce, if the violation extends to Linux as well. But, Conservancy will follow those principles and prioritize compliance and community goodwill. Oracle won't. But, saying that means that Oracle has “its hooks” in Android makes no sense. They have as many hooks as any of the other thousands of copyright holders of copylefted material in Android. If anything, this is just another indication that we need more of those copyright holders to agree with the principles, and we should shun codebases where only one for-profit company holds copyright.
Thus, my conclusion about this situation is quite different than the pundits and link-bait news articles. I speculate that Google weighed a technical decision against its own copyleft compliance processes, and determined that Google would succeed in its compliance efforts on Android, and thus won't face compliance problems, and can therefore easily benefit technically from the better code. However, for those many downstream redistributors of Android who fail at license compliance already, the ironic outcome is that you may finally find out how friendly and reasonable Conservancy's Linux GPL enforcement truly is, once you compare it with GPL enforcement from a company like Oracle, who holds avarice, not software freedom, as its primary moral principle.
Finally, the bigger problem in Android with respect to software freedom is that the GPL is widely violated on Linux in Android devices. If this change causes Android redistributors to reevalute their willful ignorance of GPL's requirements, then some good may come of it all, despite Oracle's expected nastiness.
Update on 2016-01-06: I specifically didn't mention the lawsuit above because I don't actually think this whole situation has much to do with the lawsuit, but if folks do want to read my analysis of the Oracle v. Google lawsuit, these are my posts on it in reverse chronological order: , , , . I figured I should add these links given that all the discussion on at least one forum discussing this blog post is about the lawsuit.
der.hans likes this.
60 hrs/week is not enough to get a good job done.
I just calculated my hours for 2015-12, and I discovered I only worked an average of 60 hours/week during the month of December (which included two near-all nighters in a row last week, and of course I worked every single calendar day, but I admit I only put in a measly 5-6 hours on a few of the weekend days).
I learned today that my failure to work enough may have caused huge problems. If I'd just put in more time early in the month, thing would have gone much better. (During the first two weeks of December, I seem to have only worked an average of 50 hours/week).
I am wondering if I need to reduce my volunteer time on other Free Software efforts so I can devote more time to work at Conservancy (the above doesn't include time spent on volunteer activities such as helping coordinate the FOSDEM DevRoom and the like).
I'm just not getting enough done. Things were better when I consistently worked 80 hours/week for Conservancy but I've had some difficulty doing that in the last few months: I've been down around 60-70 hours/week most weeks since August or so.
My recent laziness is causing problems. I have to fix it. I'm going to shoot for 80 hours/week again for as long as I can, starting this week.
What's really bizarre to me is how much time other people seem to take off. I got all sorts of "out of the office" auto responders late last month. It seemed a lot of people took vacation. That seemed really weird to me.Show all 12 replies
I agree with Laura, Conservancy would really need more people if your work load is that big. As a reference point, I do about 40h/week in my day job (although I don't keep very exact track of it), and that's quite enough for me.
Granted, I see my job as more of a way to make a salary, so working for a charity might be different...
@sazius makes a good point that Conservancy should hire more people. Basically, if I weren't able to do what I do, Conservancy would have needed to do it years ago. In fact, I think Conservancy probably would have just ceased to exist.
The reason I can even consider this, BTW, Doug, is that I have a lot of menial work that's assigned to me. I try to do the really difficult work in the mornings and then as the day goes on and I get tired, I focus on the menial work instead. I'm not trying to do 80 hrs/week of "plan the future of software freedom" kinda work. :)
Anyway, I hope people will become Conservancy supporters so we can have more staff. But, of course, everyone responding to this thread is already a supporter. :)
A Requiem for Ian Murdock
[ This post was crossposted on Conservancy's website. ]
I first met Ian Murdock gathered around a table at some bar, somewhere, after some conference in the late 1990s. Progeny Linux Systems' founding was soon to be announced, and Ian had invited a group from the Debian BoF along to hear about “something interesting”; the post-BoF meetup was actually a briefing on his plans for Progeny.
Many of the details (such as which conference and where on the planet it was), I've forgotten, but I've never forgotten Ian gathering us around, bending my ear to hear in the loud bar, and getting one of my first insider scoops on something big that was about to happen in Free Software. Ian was truly famous in my world; I felt like I'd won the jackpot of meeting a rock star.
More recently, I gave a keynote at DebConf this year and talked about how long I've used Debian and how much it has meant to me. I've since then talked with many people about how the Debian community is rapidly becoming a unicorn among Free Software projects — one of the last true community-driven, non-commercial projects.
A culture like that needs a huge group to rise to fruition, and there are no specific actions that can ensure creation of a multi-generational project like Debian. But, there are lots of ways to make the wrong decisions early. As near as I can tell, Ian artfully avoided the project-ending mistakes; he made the early decisions right.
Ian cared about Free Software and wanted to make something useful for the community. He teamed up with (for a time in Debian's earliest history) the FSF to help Debian in its non-profit connections and roots. And, when the time came, he did what all great leaders do: he stepped aside and let a democratic structure form. He paved the way for the creation of Debian's strong Constitutional and democratic governance. Debian has had many great leaders in its long history, but Ian was (effectively) the first DPL, and he chose not to be a BDFL.
The Free Software community remains relatively young. Thus, loss of our community members jar us in the manner that uniquely unsettles the young. In other words, anyone we lose now, as we've lost Ian this week, has died too young. It's a cliché to say, but I say anyway that we should remind ourselves to engage with those around us every day, and to welcome new people gladly. When Ian invited me around that table, I was truly nobody: he'd never met me before — indeed no one in the Free Software community knew who I was then. Yet, the mere fact that I stayed late at a conference to attend the Debian BoF was enough for him — enough for him to even invite me to hear the secret plans of his new company. Ian's trust — his welcoming nature — remains for me unforgettable. I hope to watch that nature flourish in our community for the remainder of all our lives.
I got 99 buffers...
My Emacs Desktop file had over 3,000 buffers open. The other day, my desktop load didn't work because I had a bug in my Emacs init scripts.
So, when I went to save the session, it told me I'd be replacing that session, and I just decided to go with it. I had too many buffers open.
But, now, I got 99 buffers, and often, the file I want to edit ain't mapped to one.